Education has been regarded as the face of every country’s progress. India is also not exempted from reforming its education policy and infrastructure from time to time. The article opens up by introducing the topic while covering the importance of the education system in global governance, its importance in India, the background of framing education policies in India, and its implementation results. The article also gives a brief analysis of the new education policy enacted in India called National Education Policy 2020 and explains how it is a contributing factor towards the globalization of India education.
KEYWORDS: Education, Importance, Globalisation, National Education Policy.
Citizens of a country are the sole contributors for its development. Their knowledge, skills, and capabilities are the key factors of Globalisation. Education is the basic necessity of one’s life. Thus, the government of all the nations indulges itself in providing adequate resources for education along with properly developed infrastructure, health facilities, and an environment that ensures vast opportunities. The importance of education is mentioned under various national and international statutes including Article 26 of UDHR and Article 45 and 46 of the Constitution of India. The Supreme Court of India in the case of Mohini Jain v. State of Karnataka held that “right to education is a fundamental right enshrined under Article 21 of the Constitution.”Adhering to the recognized laws, on 29th July 2020, the Union Cabinet proposed changes in the education system of schools and colleges by introducing the National Education Policy (NEP). This move was a result of an exhaustive consultation process involving 2.5 lakh gram panchayat’s inputs. To create widespread awareness of this initiative of the government, the NEP draft was translated into twenty- two languages.
INDIAN EDUCATION POLICY: BACKGROUND
The need for education policy in India was felt in the year 1964 and a committee of seventeen members headed by the then UGC Chairperson D S Kothari was constituted to suggest recommendations to national policy on education. Based on which the first education policy was passed by the Parliament in the year 1968. In 1986, another education policy came up under Rajiv Gandhi’s governance, which was revised in 1992. The current education policy introduced in 2020 is the third change brought to the existing education policy in India.
KEY TAKEAWAYS OF EDUCATION POLICY
The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 proposes certain key changes in the existing education policy and its application. The NEP focuses on opening up doors of Indian higher education to foreign universities, including an interdisciplinary combination of courses within one stream for undergraduate program, changes in the criterion of joining a college, and the discontinuance of the M Phil program and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). The policy advocates increased the use of technology to be developed under the National Educational Technology Forum constituted under the draft. Also, it emphasizes on foundational literacy and Numeracy, including academic streams, extracurricular and vocational education under a common umbrella. The NEP introduces an internship program for sixth-grade students with the aim of developing their practical skills. The policy also removes the mandate of conversing and learning the subjects in school till class five in the English language. Rather, the school can choose the mother tongue as the medium of language to teach their students.The The education Policy of 2020 is different from that of the 1986 policy in its basic model of education. The 1986 policy had a “10+2” structure of school education whereas, the 2020 policy brings forth a “5+3+3+4” structure of school education within its purview. The structure is divided into four stages corresponding to the age of students, that are, foundational stage covering age groups 3- 8 years, preparatory stage covering 8- 11 years age groups, middle stage including children from age groups of 11- 14, and secondary stage covering age groups of 14- 18 years of age. The NCERT is assigned with the task to build the National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for early childhood and education for children. To assess students’ progress and keep track of their performance, the policy has brought forth the concept of 360 Holistic reports. The NEP is highly considerable towards the students having multilingual background by encouraging the teachers to use a bilingual approach while teaching as well as while distributing study materials. The initiative has created the Academic Bank of Credits and introduced a four- year multidisciplinary bachelor’s program. According to which a student can exit college; with a certificate after completing a one-year course, with a diploma on completion of two years course and a bachelor’s degree on completion of three years or four years course. Apart from that, the master programs remain the same with no changes introduced in NEP. On this respect V.S Chauhan, former UGC Chairman stated “After four years, a BA student should be able to enter a research degree program directly depending on how well he or she has performed. However, master’s degree programs will continue to function as they do, following which student may choose to carry on for a Ph.D. program.”Functioning, funding, learning outcomes, and accreditation of education in the country will be regulated by a single authority called the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI).
The main objective behind the NEP is to emphasise more on critical thinking and experimental learning rather than book learning. Also, to build up new education system and to make all the existing institutions of education a multidisciplinary source of education by 2040. However, the NEP is not a mandatory policy to follow because education as a subject fall under concurrent list. The procedure for implementing NEP is not yet clear as for its application to its full potential funds and resources are quintessential. However, the government has set target for its implementation till the year 2040.
GLOBALISATION AND NEP
The policies incorporated under the NEP will lead to the globalization of the Indian Education if it is implemented properly and accurately. The initiative welcomes the top- class universities from all around the world to establish their institutions in India, opening ways for a better future of education in the country. The success of this move will enable more Indian students to pursue a high standard of education and learn things that are recognized globally, rising the Indian education systems to a global level. The four- year multidisciplinary bachelor’s programme is another important step taken by the government to consider the students’ condition and support their education by awarding them different levels of recognition and acknowledging their involvement in their courses whether for one or two or three years. This policy is encouraging all students to continue their graduation despite of any kind of hurdles faced in between.
The idea of introducing multidisciplinary subjects in the school curriculum will support building a student’s career sharply and prominently. As he/she would be having an idea of various aspects related to their field of work, they can contribute effectively towards society and can bring innovation to their area of work. Ultimately, their success will promote the growth and development of the country. The establishment of a National Research Foundation (NRF) will lead to magnification in the field of research, creating a society of reasoning and analysis.
The new education policy introduced in India shows a bright path for bringing a noticeable change in India’s education policy which surely will globalise the Indian education system. The National Education Policy, 2020 which aims at transforming the Indian education system from high- stakes examinations to more continuous and comprehensive evaluation process, will build up skills within students to comprehend the subject in multidisciplinary ways and think innovatively. The enactment of the NEP is a positive step taken by the Government, however, success in its implementation is subject to its utility by the citizens.
 Mohini Jain v. State of Karnataka, 1992 AIR 1858.
 Express News Service, New Education Policy 2020: Doors open for foreign universities; 4-year UG with exit option, flexible master’s (2020), https://indianexpress.com/article/education/new-education-policy-2020-govt-allows-foreign-universities-to-set-up-campuses-in-india-6529446/ (August 2nd 2020, 06:48 PM).
 Ritika Chopra, Explained: Reading the new national education policy 2020 (2020), https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/reading-new-education-policy-india-schools-colleges-6531603/ (August 2nd 2020, 12:15 PM).
 Amandeep Shukla, New Education Policy 2020: Focus on Sanskrit, Indian languages in NEP (2020), https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/new-education-policy-2020-focus-on-sanskrit-indian-languages-in-nep-institute-of-translation-to-be-set-up/story-PCNNE7yZVwcXnxfJ22ddlL.html (August 2nd 2020, 07:23 PM).
 Supra note at 2.